How to write the names of computer programs and formats

How to Write the Names of Computer Programs and Formats

A type of business software used by companies – usually via a bundle of integrated applications – to solicit, review, store, manipulate, and analyze data derived from a variety of business operations.

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Used by companies – usually via a bundle of integrated applications – to solicit, review, store, and analyze customer data, and also to manage customer interaction and facilitate the sales process and relevant partner relationships.

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An electronic arsenal of data that a user builds in order to later access, review, and update particular pieces of information in a rapid and coherent manner.

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A type of business software designed to plan and execute projects, and to manage the resources associated with those projects. PM software assists users with functions such as scheduling, assigning tasks, managing budgets and costs, documenting progress, and reporting results.

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Designed to facilitate rapid development and automation of strategic processes.

Uses web-based modeling, rule creation, and a simple interface to enable the user to perform business functions more quickly.

Usually optimized for mobile devices and offering total visibility into operations, BPM software is helpful in managing and analyzing complex data, content, and processes across the enterprise.

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Helps users do their jobs more efficiently and complete work-related tasks in a timely manner. Categories include document creation, database management, accounting and collaboration. Applications that an organization uses for overall productivity are sometimes referred to together as a software or application stack.

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A type of business software that facilitates the management of multiple projects and resources and ensures that everything is allocated effectively in real time.

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A type of business software that tracks how an individual’s digital systems are used, including how long the user spends working in certain applications.

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A type of software that facilitates the teaching and learning of new content, concepts, or processes.

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Computer file

Computer resource
This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. For a more detailed and technical article, see File system.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: “Computer file” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device. Just as words can be written to paper, so can information be written to a computer file. Files can be edited and transferred through the internet on that particular computer system.

There are different types of computer files, designed for different purposes. A file may be designed to store a picture, a written message, a video, a computer program, or a wide variety of other kinds of data. Some types of files can store several types of information at once.

By using computer programs, a person can open, read, change, save, and close a computer file. Computer files may be reopened, modified, and copied an arbitrary number of times.

Typically, files are organised in a file system, which keeps track of where the files are located on disk and enables user access.

Etymology

A punched card file
The twin disk files of an IBM 305 system

The word “file” derives from the Latin filum (“a thread”).[1]

“File” was used in the context of computer storage as early as January 1940. In Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation,[2] W. J. Eckert stated, “The first extensive use of the early Hollerith Tabulator in astronomy was made by Comrie.

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[3] He used it for building a table from successive differences, and for adding large numbers of harmonic terms”. “Tables of functions are constructed from their differences with great efficiency, either as printed tables or as a file of punched cards.

In February 1950, in a Radio Corporation of America (RCA) advertisement in Popular Science magazine[4] describing a new “memory” vacuum tube it had developed, RCA stated: “the results of countless computations can be kept 'on file' and taken out again.

Such a 'file' now exists in a 'memory' tube developed at RCA Laboratories. Electronically it retains figures fed into calculating machines, holds them in storage while it memorizes new ones – speeds intelligent solutions through mazes of mathematics.

In 1952, “file” denoted, among other things, information stored on punched cards.[5]

In early use, the underlying hardware, rather than the contents stored on it, was denominated a “file”. For example, the IBM 350 disk drives were denominated “disk files”.

[6] The introduction, circa 1961, by the Burroughs MCP and the MIT Compatible Time-Sharing System of the concept of a “file system” that managed several virtual “files” on one storage device is the origin of the contemporary denotation of the word.

Although the contemporary “register file” demonstrates the early concept of files, its use has greatly decreased.

File contents

On most modern operating systems, files are organized into one-dimensional arrays of bytes.

The format of a file is defined by its content since a file is solely a container for data, although on some platforms the format is usually indicated by its filename extension, specifying the rules for how the bytes must be organized and interpreted meaningfully. For example, the bytes of a plain text file (.

txt in Windows) are associated with either ASCII or UTF-8 characters, while the bytes of image, video, and audio files are interpreted otherwise. Most file types also allocate a few bytes for metadata, which allows a file to carry some basic information about itself.

Some file systems can store arbitrary (not interpreted by the file system) file-specific data outside of the file format, but linked to the file, for example extended attributes or forks. On other file systems this can be done via sidecar files or software-specific databases. All those methods, however, are more susceptible to loss of metadata than are container and archive file formats.

File size

This section may contain misleading parts. Please help clarify this article according to any suggestions provided on the talk page. (March 2019)

Main article: File size

At any instant in time, a file might have a size, normally expressed as number of bytes, that indicates how much storage is associated with the file.

In most modern operating systems the size can be any non-negative whole number of bytes up to a system limit. Many older operating systems kept track only of the number of blocks or tracks occupied by a file on a physical storage device. In such systems, software employed other methods to track the exact byte count (e.g.

, CP/M used a special control character, Ctrl-Z, to signal the end of text files).

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Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
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Guide for Authors

Download Guide for Authors in PDF

Science of Computer Programming is dedicated to the distribution of research results in the areas of software systems development, use and maintenance, including the software aspects of hardware design.The journal has a wide scope ranging from the many facets of methodological foundations to the details of technical issues andthe aspects of industrial practice.

  • The subjects of interest to SCP cover the entire spectrum of methods for the entire life cycle of software systems, including• Requirements, specification, design, validation, verification, coding, testing, maintenance, metrics and renovation of software;• Design, implementation and evaluation of programming languages;• Programming environments, development tools, visualisation and animation;• Management of the development process;• Human factors in software, software for social interaction, software for social computing;• Cyber physical systems, and software for the interaction between the physical and the machine;
  • • Software aspects of infrastructure services, system administration, and network management.

Special emphasis is given to recent trends in software development, such as software architecture, component-based software development and web-based software engineering. SCP is divided into four tracks.

These are: (1) Concepts and methodology, (2) Formal techniques, (3) Experimental software technology, (4) Descriptive software technology.

1) The conceptual track is open for methodological, philosophical and sociological studies on all aspects of computer software production and usage, including ethics. Also short papers are allowed here, called viewpoints.

2) The formal track emphasizes the development and the pragmatic application of formal and semiformal techniques. Submissions which the editors consider mainly mathematical or theoretical in nature, with the preliminary consent of the authors, will formally be forwarded to the sister journal TCS.

3) The experimental track is open for expositions on implementations of and experiments with novel programming languages, systems and methods. It must be emphasized that papers describing new software tools of relevance to SCP are welcome under the strict condition that the source code of the tools is open. Moreover, the results should be reproducible and show general applicability. By means of the article type of original Software Publications also versioned software product, corpora and datasets can enter the review process and get published.4) The descriptive track deals with observational studies of current software development practices, reporting on new languages,systems and methods, including survey reports on the various themes.

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Special Issues:Science of Computer Programming welcomes Special Issues within its Scope either resulting from conferences or workshops or from dedicated editorial efforts.

Science of Computer Programming is dedicated to the distribution of research results in the areas of software systems development, use and maintenance, including the software aspects of hardware design.

The journal has a wide scope ranging from the many facets of methodological foundations to the details of technical issues and the aspects of industrial practice.

The subjects of interest to SCP cover the entire spectrum of methods for the entire life cycle of software systems, including • requirements, specification, design , validation, verification, coding, testing, maintenance, metrics and renovation of software; • design, implementation and evaluation of programming languages; • programming environments, development tools, visualisation and animation; • management of the development process; • human factors in software. • software aspects of operating systems, system administration and network management

Special emphasis is given to recent trends in software development, such as software architecture, component-based software development and web-based software engineering. SCP is divided into four tracks.

These are: (1) Concepts and methodology, (2) Formal techniques, (3) Experimental software technology, (4) Descriptive software technology, 1) The conceptual track is open for methodological, philosophical and sociological studies on all aspects of computer software production and usage, including ethics.

2) The formal track emphasizes the development and the pragmatic application of formal and semiformal techniques. Submissions which the editors consider mainly mathematical or theoretical in nature, with the preliminary consent of the authors, will normally be forwarded to the sister journal TCS.

3) The experimental track is open for expositions on implementations of and experiments with novel programming languages, systems and methods. It must be emphasized that papers describing new software tools of relevance to SCP are welcome under the strict condition that the source code of the tools is open.

4) The descriptive track deals with observational studies of current software development practices, reporting on new languages, systems and methods, including survey reports on the various themes.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

  1. Ensure that the following items are present:
  2. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:• E-mail address
  3. • Full postal address
  4. All necessary files have been uploaded:Manuscript:• Include keywords• All figures (include relevant captions)• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
  5. Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)

Supplemental files (where applicable)

  • Further considerations• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed

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