Passive voice

Hello, guys! Today I want to tell you about the Passive.

I loooove chocolate chip cookies. My mother always keeps the cookie jar full of cookies. The cookie jar is kept full by my mother.

Passive VoicePassive Voice Где были sentences in the Active voice а где in the Passive voice?
Yes, the first two sentences are active, the third – passive. Let’s look at this example:Passive Voice

В первом случае, кто украл печеньку? Да, да – ты! You – это subject, и он стоит на первом месте. Какой tense у первого предложения? It’s past simple. Это предложение в Active voice, на первом месте стоит тот, кто делает действие.

Во втором случае – печенька была украдена. Кем? Секрет. Мы не знаем, нам не важно – в общем, на первом месте тут у нас то, что было украдено.

Did the cookie steal itself? Nooo, конечно же нет. Кто-то был такой, кто ее украл. То есть это у нас Passive voice – страдательный залог (ну почему же такое грустное у него название?) В пассиве на первом месте стоит то, над чем совершено действие – в данном случае действие совершено над cookie – the cookie was stolen.

Passive Voice То есть в passive на первом месте мы ставим object – the receiver of the action.

Используем мы Passive вот когда:

  • Нам object интереснее чем subject (The cat was rescued!)
  • Мы не знаем who did the action или это неважно (Rice is grown in China)
  • Когда agent (doer of the action) очевиден – I was born on the 14th of December. Ну логично что мама помогала
  • To sound more formal: The student was asked to leave the examination room due to his lack of respect for his fellow-students. Если мы скажем что the teacher kicked the student out, это менее formal, правда?

Как мы строим предложение в пассиве?

Сначала мы ставим наш object (receiver of the action, то над чем совершается действие), then we put the verb “to be” in the correct tense (в нашем случае у нас past simple, to be в прошедшем времени – это was или were, у нас 1 cookie = it, следовательно – was) и дальше глагол в третьей форме. (Если глагол правильный, то третья форма – это verb + ED ending)

В общем примерно так:

Passive Voice То есть, если мы хотим в Passive сказать кто сделал action, мы используем BY.

The cookie was stolen by my dog!

В целом это выглядит так:

The Passive
Object + to be (correct form) + V3 (by subject)

Passive Voice Вот примеры:Passive Voice
Passive Voice Note! Present Perfect continuous теоретически можно использовать в Passive, однако его не употребляют. Так что для Perfect continuous tenses обычно используют active form.

А Инна Жарук и Влада Сошкина сделали для вас вот такую замечательную табличку-инфографику:

Passive Voice

Кстати, остальные грамматические таблички находятся тут!

А еще бывает так, что в sentence есть 2 objects, тогда из одного active sentence можно сделать два passive sentences. (смотря что поставить в начало предложения)

  • Active: He gave me the book / He gave the book to me. You can choose either of the two objects to be the subject of the passive sentence.
  • Passive: I was given the book (by him)/ The book was given to me (by him).

Let’s look at two more examples:

  1. «Romeo and Juliet» was written by Shakespeare.
  2. «Romeo and Juliet» was written with a quill pen. (перо)

Who did it? Shakespeare. He’s the DOER of the action. Так что, когда мы хотим показать КТО это сделал, мы используем предлог BY.

Чем написали это произведение? Пером. Но тут перо ничего не делало, это такой же object, как и само произведение. Мы можем сказать A quill was used to write “Romeo and Juliet”. То есть, когда мы хотим добавить еще один object в предложение, мы используем preposition “with”.

The ground was covered WITH leaves. Листья сами ничего не делали. Ими была усыпана земля.

Don’t forget to practice!

GOOD LUCK! =) Don’t be passive, DO something!

Пассивный залог в английском языке (Passive Voice)

Passive Voice

В английском, как и в русском языке, существует активный залог (Active Voice) и страдательный (или пассивный) залог (Passive Voice).

Употребление пассивного залога.

1. Когда само по себе действие важнее, чем его исполнитель, и говорящий хочет указать именно на действие. Например:

A courier delivers mail every day. – Курьер доставляет почту каждый день. (Active Voice) The mail is delivered every day. – Почту доставляют каждый день. (Passive Voice)

В первом предложении мы указываем исполнителя действия, а во втором используем пассивный залог, так как хотим подчеркнуть само действие, факт доставки, а не его исполнителя.

2. Пассивный залог используют, если исполнитель действия неизвестен, неважен или понятен из контекста:

These clothes are made in Italy. – Эта одежда изготавливается в Италии. The new laws will be discussed tomorrow. – Новые законы будут обсуждаться завтра.

Поэтому в газетных заголовках и статьях, в объявлениях, инструкциях, рекламных текстах пассивный залог используется чаще чем активный:

The valuable painting was stolen from the museum last night. – Ценная картина была украдена из музея прошлой ночью. The company was sold. – Компания была продана.

Our vegetables are not sprayed with pesticides. – Наши овощи не обрызгиваются пестицидами.

3. Пассивный залог используют, когда говорят о неприятных ситуациях и не хотят никого обвинять, а также чтобы придать высказыванию более вежливый характер:

The party was spoilt. – Вечеринка была испорчена.

The order wasn’t dispatched yesterday but it will be done tomorrow. – Заказ не был отправлен вчера, но это сделают завтра.

Временные формы

Все временные формы пассивного залога состоят из двух частей: глагол to be в определенной временной форме и третья форма глагола (причастие прошедшего времени или Past Participle). Как и в активном залоге, в пассивном существуют различные времена, формы, которые мы с вами рассмотрим.

Важно помнить, что третья форма глагола всегда присутствует и  остается неизменной во всех временных формах пассивного залога. Собственно время высказывания мы определяем по форме глагола to be. Сравним формы активного и пассивного залога:

Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Present Simple write is/are written
Present Continuous am/is/are writing is/are being written
Present Perfect have/has written have/has been written
Past Simple wrote was/were written
Past Continuous was/were writing was/were being written
Past Perfect had written had been written
Future Simple will write will be written
Future Perfect will have written will have been written
Modals can/ should write can/ should be written

Во временах группы Perfect Continuous (Present, Past и Future) и Future Continuous пассивный залог не используется. Если возникает необходимость употребить одно из этих времен, то они заменяются активным залогом или  другим временем.

Чтобы запомнить все формы пассивного залога и особенности их употребления, обратимся к примерам и пояснениям. Мы рассмотрим наиболее часто используемые формы пассивного залога.

Present Simple (обычное, постоянное, регулярное действие)
Мы пишем много писем каждый день. – We write a lot of letters every day. Много писем пишется каждый день. – A lot of letters are written every day.

Если письма пишут прямо сейчас, в момент речи, то мы используем Present Continuous Passive:

Present Continuous (действие происходит в момент речи)
Они пишут письмо сейчас. – They are writing a letter now. Письмо пишут прямо сейчас.  The letter is being written now.

Очень распространенная ошибка – использование Present Simple Passive вместо Present Continuous Passive.

Не забывайте, что во всех временах группы Continuous должен присутствовать глагол с окончанием -ing, даже в пассивном залоге. Слово being указывает на процессуальность действия.

See also:  The science of violence

Если вы забываете про вспомогательный глагол being, ваше высказывание меняет смысл и превращается в Present Simple. Сравните:

Present Simple Passive Present Continuous Passive
Эта машина такая грязная!  Видимо, эту машину нечасто моют. – This car is so dirty! Obviously, it is hardly ever cleaned. Пойду выпью кофе, пока мою машину моют. – I will have a cup of coffee while my car is being cleaned.
Past Simple (завершенное действие в прошлом)
Они написали много писем вчера. – They wrote a lot of letters yesterday. Вчера было написано много писем. – A lot of letters were written yesterday.

Past Simple Passive употребляют для описания исторических событий, когда само действие (историческое событие, открытие) важнее того, кто его совершил или неизвестно, кто являлся исполнителем действия:

The telephone was invented in 1876. – Телефон был изобретен в 1876 году. The scientists say that this sculpture was made in the Roman Empire. – Ученые утверждают, что эта скульптура была изготовлена в Римской Империи.

В первом примере для нас не важно имя изобретателя телефона, а во втором мы можем только догадываться, кем была изготовлена скульптура. 

Past Continuous (действие было в процессе в определенный момент в прошлом)
Когда я пришел, они писали письма. – When I came, they were writing letters. Когда я пришел, письма писали. – When I came, the letters were being written.

I couldn’t drive yesterday at 6 o’clock. My car was being serviced. – Я не мог пользоваться машиной в шесть часов. Мою машину ремонтировали. While I was waiting, the room was being cleaned.  – Пока я ожидал, комнату убирали.

Хотите разобраться в грамматике? Мы знаем, как это сделать!

Еще раз напоминаю вам, что если действие подразумевает процесс, то используется второй вспомогательный глагол being.

Present Perfect (действие произошло недавно и важен его результат)
The police have arrested the robbers. – Полиция задержала грабителей. The robbers have been arrested by the police. – Грабители задержаны полицией.

Present Perfect Passive часто используют, когда передают новости, если исполнитель действия неважен, неизвестен или, наоборот, понятен из контекста:

The annual budget has been adopted. – Принят ежегодный бюджет. The protests have been suppressed. – Протесты были подавлены.

В приведенных примерах, которые вполне можно услышать в новостях, не указывается исполнитель действия, потому что нам и без этого ясно, кто принимает бюджет, подавляет протесты и арестовывает грабителей.

Past Perfect (прошедшее действие, предшествующее другому прошедшему)
When I arrived at the office the secretary had already sent the letter. – Когда я приехал в офис, секретарь уже отправила письмо. When I arrived at the office the letter had been sent. – Когда я приехал в офис, письмо уже было отправлено.

Если в вашем предложении два действия и одно из них произошло раньше другого, следует это обозначить, используя Past Perfect:

She got into a car and remembered that the door hadn't been locked. – Она села в машину и вспомнила, что дверь не была закрыта. We came in and saw that the room had been cleaned. – Мы вошли и увидели, что в комнате прибрали. 

Если вы забыли, в каких случаях используется Past Perfect, рекомендуем заглянуть сюда.

Future Simple (действие, которое произойдет в будущем)
The secretary will send this letter tomorrow. – Секретарь отправит это письмо завтра. This letter will be sent tomorrow. – Это письмо будет отправлено завтра.
Future Perfect (действие, которое будет завершено до определенного момента в будущем)
The secretary will have sent this letter by 5 o’clock. – Секретарь отправит это письмо к пяти часам. This letter will have been sent by 5 o’clock. – Это письмо будет отправлено к пяти часам.

Что касается будущих времен, их функции в пассивном залоге не отличаются от функций в активном. Часто пассивные формы будущих времен используются в обещаниях и заверениях. Например:

The room will be cleaned tomorrow, I promise. – Комната будет убрана завтра, я обещаю. The report will have been finished by midday. – Отчет будет окончен к полудню.

Modal verbs (функция определяется модальным глаголом)
The secretary can send this letter now.– Секретарь может отправить это письмо сейчас. This letter can be sent now. – Это письмо может быть отправлено сейчас.
You must deliver the mail in the morning. – Вы должны доставлять почту по утрам. Mail must be delivered in the morning. – Почта должна доставляться по утрам.

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“Агент действия”  и перевод из активного залога в пассивный

Несмотря на то, что в пассивном залоге действие более существенно, чем его исполнитель (агент действия), он может указываться в предложении, когда это необходимо. Агент вводится в предложение предлогом BY:

The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell. – Телефон был изобретен Александром Беллом. The damage was caused by the hurricane. – Повреждения были нанесены ураганом.

При трансформации предложения из активного залога в пассивный, дополнение (object) становится подлежащим (subject), а подлежащее становится агентом (agent):

Subject Verb Object
Active Voice A famous director made this thriller.
Subject Verb Agent
Passive Voice This thriller was made by a famous director.

Чтобы указать в пассивном залоге предмет, инструмент, материал или ингредиент, при помощи которого осуществлялось действие, используется предлог WITH:

The door was opened with a crowbar. – Дверь открыли при помощи лома. The toys are made with paper, plastic or rubber. – Игрушки делают из бумаги, пластмассы или резины.

При переводе из активного в пассивный залог не указывайте агента, если агент действия неважен, неизвестен или очевиден, а также если в активном залоге в качестве подлежащего указывается: people, somebody, someone, one, they:

Active Voice Passive Voice
People believe that garlic is good for health. – Люди считают, что чеснок полезен для здоровья. It is believed that garlic is good for health by people. – Считается, что чеснок полезен для здоровья.

Если мы хотим узнать, кто является исполнителем действия, то используем вопросительные слова WHO или WHAT, а в конце вопроса предлог BY:

Who was telephone invented by? – Кем был изобретен телефон? What was the damage caused by? – Что причинило повреждение?

Глаголы с двумя дополнениями и глаголы с предлогами

Затруднения возникают с глаголами, которые могут иметь два дополнения: bring, give, offer, pay, promise, read, sell, send, show,  take, teach, tell и другие.

Так как эти и многие другие глаголы имеют два дополнения, они могут образовывать два предложения в пассивном залоге. Однако при переводе в пассивный залог подлежащим обычно делают человека, а не предмет:

Active Voice Passive Voice
The teacher told children a story.  – Учитель рассказал детям историю. The children were told a story by the teacher. – Детям рассказали историю.(Сommon) A story was told to the children by the teacher. – История была рассказана детям.(Less common)
Mr Black promised Bob a pay rise.  – Мистер Блек пообещал Бобу прибавку к жалованию. Bob was promised a pay rise by Mr Black. – Бобу пообещали прибавку к жалованию.(Сommon) A pay rise was promised to Bob by Mr Black. – Прибавка к жалованию была обещана Бобу.(Less common)

Если в активном залоге используются фразовые глаголы, и те глаголы, за которыми следует предлог, то в пассивном залоге предлог должен сохраняться:

Active Voice Passive Voice
Paul left his keys behind. – Пол оcтавил свои ключи. The keys were left behind by Paul. – Ключи были оставлены Полом.
They accused Tom of stealing the money. – Они обвинили Тома в краже денег. Tom was accused of stealing  the money. – Тома обвинили в краже денег.
See also:  People versus entities

Пассивный залог более типичен для письменной речи, чем для устной. Пассивный залог чаще используется в деловом общении, чем в повседневном. Пассивный залог преобладает в научном английском, при описании процессов, в инструкциях и правилах.

An illness, however minor, must be treated by a doctor. — Болезнь, насколько бы легкой она не была, должна лечиться доктором.

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Passive Voice: When to Use It and When to Avoid It

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In English, all sentences are in either “active” or “passive” voice:

active: Werner Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in 1927.

passive: The uncertainty principle was formulated by Werner Heisenberg in 1927.

In an active sentence, the person or thing responsible for the action in the sentence comes first. In a passive sentence, the person or thing acted on comes first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced with the preposition “by.” The passive form of the verb is signaled by a form of “to be”: in the sentence above, “was formulated” is in passive voice while “formulated” is in active.

In a passive sentence, we often omit the actor completely:

The uncertainty principle was formulated in 1927.

When do I use passive voice?

In some sentences, passive voice can be perfectly acceptable. You might use it in the following cases:

  1. The actor is unknown:

    The cave paintings of Lascaux were made in the Upper Old Stone Age. [We don’t know who made them.]

  2. The actor is irrelevant:

    An experimental solar power plant will be built in the Australian desert. [We are not interested in who is building it.]

  3. You want to be vague about who is responsible:

    Mistakes were made. [Common in bureaucratic writing!]

  4. You are talking about a general truth:

    Rules are made to be broken. [By whomever, whenever.]

  5. You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on. For example, it may be your main topic:

    Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by researchers at the University of Toronto. It is still the only treatment available for diabetes.

  6. You are writing in a scientific genre that traditionally relies on passive voice. Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers, most notably in the Materials and Methods section:

    The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water. This solution was then titrated with hydrochloric acid.

    In these sentences you can count on your reader to know that you are the one who did the dissolving and the titrating. The passive voice places the emphasis on your experiment rather than on you.

    Note: Over the past several years, there has been a movement within many science disciplines away from passive voice.

    Scientists often now prefer active voice in most parts of their published reports, even occasionally using the subject “we” in the Materials and Methods section.

    Check with your instructor or TA whether you can use the first person “I” or “we” in your lab reports to help avoid the passive.

    To learn more about the use of passive voice in the sciences, visit our handout on writing in the sciences.

When should I avoid passive voice?

Passive sentences can get you into trouble in academic writing because they can be vague about who is responsible for the action:

Both Othello and Iago desire Desdemona. She is courted. [Who courts Desdemona? Othello? Iago? Both of them?]

Academic writing often focuses on differences between the ideas of different researchers, or between your own ideas and those of the researchers you are discussing. Too many passive sentences can create confusion:

Research has been done to discredit this theory. [Who did the research? You? Your professor? Another author?]

Some students use passive sentences to hide holes in their research:

The telephone was invented in the nineteenth century. [I couldn’t find out who invented the telephone!]

Finally, passive sentences often sound wordy and indirect. They can make the reader work unnecessarily hard. And since they are usually longer than active sentences, passive sentences take up precious room in your paper:

Since the car was being driven by Michael at the time of the accident, the damages should be paid for by him.

Weeding out passive sentences

If you now use a lot of passive sentences, you may not be able to catch all of the problematic cases in your first draft. But you can still go back through your essay hunting specifically for passive sentences. At first, you may want to ask for help from a writing instructor.

The grammar checker in your word processor can help spot passive sentences, though grammar checkers should always be used with extreme caution since they can easily mislead you.

To spot passive sentences, look for a form of the verb to be in your sentence, with the actor either missing or introduced after the verb using the word “by”:

  • Poland was invaded in 1939, thus initiating the Second World War.
  • Genetic information is encoded by DNA.
  • The possibility of cold fusion has been examined for many years.

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The passive agent

When we know who the subject is, we put it at the end with by. We call this an agent.

  1. Passive: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci. (agent =Leonardo Da Vinci )
  2. Active: Leonaro Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.

Most writing instructors and editors recommend against using the passive voice, when possible. The reason for this is that when you use the active voice, your writing is clearer and less complicated.

  1. Active: While Mr. Taylor was driving down Highway 101, a police officer pulled him over and gave him a speeding ticket.
  2. Passive: While Mr. Taylor was driving down Highway 101, he was pulled over and given a ticket by a police officer.

If it’s a long sentence and you know who the subject is, it’s best to use the active voice.

The passive is often used to report something or to state a fact.

  1. Highway 15 was closed yesterday due to a serious road accident.
  2. A lot of corn is grown in Iowa.

Forming the passive voice

The passive voice is not a tense in English. Each tense has its own passive voice which is created by using a form of the auxiliary verb to be + V3 (past participle)

The passive voice in each tense:

Tense Auxiliary verb + sample V3 (past participle) Examples
Present simple am, is, are + made Wine is made from grapes.
Many cars are made in Japan.
Present progressive am, is, are + being + sent The document is being sent right now.
I am being sent to work in the London office.
Past simple was, were + invited John was invited to speak at the conference.
We were invited to Daniel and Mary’s wedding.
Past progressive was, were + being + washed The dog was being washed when I got home.
Their cars were being washed while they were in the mall shopping.
Future (will) will be + signed The contract will be signed tomorrow.
The documents will all be signed by next week.
Future (going to) am, is, are + going to be + built A bridge is going to be built within the next two years.
New houses are going to be built in our neighborhood.
Present perfect has, have + been + sold That start-up has been sold for $5 million.
The rights to his book have been sold for $250,000.
Past perfect had + been + hired The new manager had been hired before John left the company.
All the employees had hired before the store opened.
Future perfect will + have been + finished The car will have been loaded by the time he gets home.
The crates will have been loaded by then.
Modals: can/could can, could + be + issued A passport can only be issued at the embassy.
He said the documents could be issued within the week.
Modal: have to have to, has to, had to + be + arranged A babysitter has to be arranged for this evening.
Joan’s travel plans have to be arranged by December.
Modal: must must + be + stopped Criminals must be stopped before they commit crimes.
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All of the rules for passive negatives and questions are the same as for the active voice.

Note: Verbs that have no object (no one to “receive” the action) cannot be put into the passive, such as, arrive, come, die, exist, go, happen, have, live, occur sleep, etc.

Passive Voice – Exercises

Fill in the correct passive form of the verb in parentheses.

  1. After the earthquake, aid was sent to the people of Haiti. (sent)
  2. The electricity was cut off because the bill hadn’t been paid. (not pay)
  1. Penicillin ______ by Alexander Fleming in 1928. (discover)
  2. Statements ______ from all the witnesses at this moment. (take)
  3. Whales ______ by an international ban on whaling. (must protect)
  4. Both weddings _______ by Good Taste. (cater)
  5. A Picasso ____ from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.(steal)
  6. ____ this washing machine ______in Germany? (make)
  7. Tea _____ in China. (grow)
  8. When we reached the airport, we found that all the flights____ due to the storm. (cancel)
  9. The fax _____ until tomorrow morning. (not send)
  10. The soundtrack of a movie _____ always _____ after the filming is finished. (is/add)

Answers:

  1. was discovered
  2. are being taken
  3. must be protected
  4. were catered
  5. was stolen
  6. Was/made
  7. is grown
  8. had been cancelled
  9. won’t be sent
  10. is/added

Passive Voice

The passive voice is often maligned by teachers and professors as a bad writing habit. Or, to put it in the active voice, teachers and professors across the English-speaking world malign the passive voice as a bad writing habit.

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What is the passive voice?

In general, the active voice makes your writing stronger, more direct, and, you guessed it, more active.

The subject is something, or it does the action of the verb in the sentence. With the passive voice, the subject is acted upon by some other performer of the verb.

(In case you weren’t paying attention, the previous two sentences use the type of voice they describe.)

But the passive voice is not incorrect. In fact, there are times when it can come in handy. Read on to learn how to form the active and passive voices, when using the passive voice is a good idea, and how to avoid confusing it with similar forms.

The difference between active and passive voice

While tense is all about time references, voice describes whether the grammatical subject of a clause performs or receives the action of the verb.
Here’s the formula for the active voice:
[subject]+[verb (performed by the subject)]+[optional object]

In a passive voice construction, the grammatical subject of the clause receives the action of the verb. So, the ball from the above sentence, which is receiving the action, becomes the subject. The formula:
[subject]+[some form of the verb to be]+[past participle of a transitive verb]+[optional prepositional phrase]

The ball was kicked by Chester.

That last little bit—“by Chester”—is a prepositional phrase that tells you who the performer of the action is. But even though Chester is the one doing the kicking, he’s no longer the grammatical subject. A passive voice construction can even drop him from the sentence entirely:

How’s that for anticlimactic?

When (and when not) to use the passive voice

If you’re writing anything with a definitive subject who’s performing an action, you’ll be better off using the active voice. And if you search your document for instances of was, is, or were and your page lights up with instances of passive voice, it may be a good idea to switch to active voice.

That said, there are times when the passive voice does a better job of presenting an idea, especially in certain formal, professional, and legal discussions. Here are three common uses of the passive voice:

1 Reports of crimes or incidents with unknown perpetrators

My car was stolen yesterday.

If you knew who stole the car, it probably wouldn’t be as big a problem. The passive voice emphasizes the stolen item and the action of theft.

2 Scientific contexts

The rat was placed into a T-shaped maze.

Who places the rat into the maze? Scientists, duh. But that’s less important than the experiment they’re conducting. Therefore, passive voice.

3 When you want to emphasize an action itself and the doer of the action is irrelevant or distracting:

The president was sworn in on a cold January morning.

How many people can remember off the top of their heads who swears in presidents? Clearly the occasion of swearing in the commander in chief is the thing to emphasize here.

In each of the above contexts, the action itself—or the person or thing receiving the action—is the part that matters.

That means the performer of the action can appear in a prepositional phrase or be absent from the sentence altogether.

Creative ways to use the passive voice in writing

The above examples show some formal uses of the passive voice, but some writers take advantage of the shift in emphasis it provides for other reasons.

Here are moments when the passive voice is a stylistic decision that suits the author’s writing goals.

1 Avoid getting blamed
There are times when you want to get away with something without making it crystal-clear who’s at fault. The classic example:

“Mistakes were made.” —most politicians

Who made them? Is anyone taking responsibility? What’s the solution here? One political scientist dubbed this structure the “past exonerative” because it’s meant to exonerate a speaker from whatever foul they may have committed. In other words, drop the subject, get off the hook.

  • 2 Beat around the bush
  • Jane Austen is a master of poking fun at her characters so euphemistically that it seems almost polite, and the passive voice is one of her favorite methods for doing that.

“[He] pressed them so cordially to dine at Barton Park every day till they were better settled at home that, though his entreaties were carried to a point of perseverance beyond civility, they could not give offense.” —Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility

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