Parentheses, brackets, and braces

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesParentheses, Brackets, and Bracesby

Digital Escape Room, 5.OA.1: This no-prep math escape room is a fantastic way to review parentheses, brackets, and braces in 5th grade! Students love working together to solve the clues in this escape activity. The escape room is digitally controlled and is perfect for laptops, desktops, iPads, Chro

Also included in: ⭐The EVERYTHING 5th Grade Math Curriculum and Activities Bundle⭐

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesParentheses, Brackets, and Bracesby

Have your students practice the order of operations with expressions that have parentheses, brackets, and braces in a fun way. This file includes a tic-tac-toe style game with detailed answer key. ***Please check out my other Order of Operations tic-tac-toe game (questions do not have the bracket

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesConnect 4 Order of Operations with Parentheses, Brackets & Braces 5.OA.A.1Parentheses, Brackets, and Bracesby

Parentheses, Brackets & Braces in Numerical Expressions Connect Four
CCSS 5.OA.A.1 Students practice using parentheses, brackets or braces to evaluate expressions in a game-style format. Students take turns drawing a card and solving the equation using the parentheses, brackets or braces. If

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesParentheses, Brackets, and Bracesby

These six games cover every CCSS-aligned fifth grade operations and algebraic thinking topic for only $1 each! The games reinforce the 5.OA.A.1, 5.OA.A.2, and 5.OA.B.3, standards, including skills such as:• Using parentheses, brackets, and braces in numerical expressions• Evaluating expressions• Des

Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces⭐ NO PREP ⭐ 5th Grade OA Escape Rooms ⭐ 5th Grade Common CoreParentheses, Brackets, and Bracesby

Digital Escape Rooms, Operations & Algebraic Thinking – 5th Grade: These 3 no-prep math escape rooms are fantastic ways to review Geometry in 5th grade! Students love working together to solve the clues in these escape activities. The escape rooms are digitally controlled and are perfect for lap

5th Grade Math Review Gameby

This 5th grade math review activity gives students a lot of skill practice in a fun game context. My students beg to keep playing (and solving math problems) until a winner is declared. Three sets of questions (30 problems per set), usually enough for two or three class periods of play. The three-




4.NF.C.7, 5.OA.A.2, 5.OA.A.1, 5.NBT.B.6, 5.NBT.B.5…

Order of Operations Jeopardy – Smartboardby

This is an order of operations jeopardy game designed to play on the Smartboard. The categories are + – x /, parentheses, PEMDAS, exponents, and brackets and braces. Each question page has the opition to play the Jeopardy music. The answers are all provided and there is a scoreboard built into the g

Common Core: Math Operations Multiplication Word Problem: Upper Gradesby

These task cards can be used whole group, small group, with partners, or even individually! They are very user friendly for students to work on independently or with the teacher. Included in your download is:
–40 task cards –student recording sheet
–answer key This will help your students prep




5.OA.A.2, 5.OA.A.1, 4.OA.A.2, 4.OA.A.1, 3.OA.A.2…

Order of Operations Three-in-a-Row Gameby

Order of operations math game for practice and reteaching braces, brackets, parentheses and exponents. Includes 60 problems, enough for 2-3 class periods of play. Two levels of play: One set of cards focus on parenthesis, brackets and braces to meet fifth grade standards, and the other set of gam

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Parentheses, Brackets and Braces – Rules and Examples

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesParentheses, brackets and braces are three punctuation marks that are used when writing in English.

Click Here for Step-by-Step Rules, Stories and Exercises to Practice All English Tenses

Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces

Parentheses ( )

Parentheses (plural)

Parenthesis (singular) 

Parentheses are the most common of these three punctuation marks.

Parentheses are made on a keyboard by pressing the SHIFT key + 9 or 0.

We use parentheses to enclose information that can be left out.

The information in the parentheses is not essential to the meaning of the original sentence. it is given as additional, or extra, information.


  • Sam (the boy from the school) helped me with my homework.
  • The pig ate the ice-cream cone. (His favorite flavor was chocolate.) Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces

When this happens, we do not capitalize the section in parentheses or put punctuation at the end.Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces


  • Jenny (the girl that lives in the yellow house) invited you to her birthday party next week.
  • I am going to the park to play with Richard (who goes to school with me).

When this happens, we treat the words in the parentheses as a complete sentence by capitalizing the first letter and adding punctuation inside the parentheses.


  • The children won their baseball game. (It was exciting!)
  • I am going to the park to play with Richard. (Richard went to school with me.)

Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces Examples:

  • Jenny (the girl that lives in the yellow house) invited you to her birthday party next week. Jenny invited you to her birthday party next week.
  • I am going to the park to play with Richard (who goes to school with me). I am going to the park to play with Richard.
  • The children won their baseball game. (It was exciting!) The children won their baseball game.
  • I am going to the park to play with Richard. (Richard went to school with me.) I am going to the park to play with Richard. Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces
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Brackets look squarer than parentheses. They are made on a keyboard by using the two keys to the right of the P. Brackets are placed around extra information in a text, especially comments made by an editor. in other words, they are typically used for editorial comments, corrections, and clarifications For example, you can use brackets to add something into a sentence that was taken out by the writer.

Original sentence:

  • She drove 60 on the highway to town. This could mean 60 miles per hour, 60 kilometers per hour or something different.

Sentence with words added by an editor to help the reader understand:

  • She drove 60 [miles per hour] on the highway to town.

In this example, the information in the brackets helps the reader understand the sentence. Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces Parentheses are used for text that is part of the original sentence but can be omitted.


  • We were very happy to see them (all of them).
  • For more info see chapter the “Birds” (page 5).
  • I was very surprised (and it's pretty hard to surprise me!).

Brackets are typically used to explain or clarify the original text by an editor.


  • She [Martha] is a great friend of us. In this example “Martha” was not part of the original sentence, and the editor added it for clarification.
  • Many sheeps [ships] left the port.In this example the original writer made a spelling mistake. So later on, when someone quoted them, they added “[ships]” for clarification. “Ships” was not part of the original sentence.

You can also use brackets in sentences where you want to put parentheses within parentheses.

The order is the following:

  1. Opening parenthesis
  2. Opening bracket
  3. Closing bracket
  4. Closing parenthesis


  • The package includes several things (mainly CDs [compact discs]).

Braces and Brackets |

The character set of a typeface includes a broad range of punctuation marks. Among them are parentheses, braces and brackets. These three pairs of symbols all serve to enclose additional information – words, numbers or symbols – generally not essential to the meaning of the sentence or paragraph. Although all three marks share this function, they have specialized usages as well.

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesParentheses, braces and brackets come in a multitude of shapes and styles.

In terms of form, these marks are typically designed to harmonize with the letters and numerals in a given typeface.

They can be single weight, monostroke glyphs; swelled forms with thicker middles; or curved strokes with thickened tops and/or bottoms.

Brackets tend to be the most straightforward in terms of design; braces are generally somewhat more distinctive and sometimes a bit elaborate.

Parentheses are the most common of the three, and are used to enclose, or set off, information that is explanatory, qualifying or merely incidental.

Items generally set off by parentheses include: abbreviations and acronyms, area codes and time zones, as well as numbered or lettered lists or rankings. A parenthetical phrase can be used in the middle of a sentence or at the end, directly preceding the period.

If the parenthetical statement is a complete thought (its own sentence), then it commonly follows the period.

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesShown above are two uses of parentheses: setting off a phrase within text (upper), and indicating an operation within a mathematical equation (lower).

Brackets are commonly used to set off additional material within a parenthetical phrase, as a way to avoid the “nesting” of parentheses.

Brackets are also used to enclose explanations or comments by an author, editor or publisher; to note a definition, translation or pronunciation; to clarify an omission; and to provide the source of a quotation.

They appear in mathematics and chemistry, as well as in programming languages.

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesBrackets can be used to set off additional information appearing within a parenthetical phrase, as a way to avoid the “nesting” of parentheses.

Braces, also referred to as curly brackets, are a more decorative form of bracket.

They have specialized usages in several fields: in general text to indicate sets; in mathematics; in poetry and music to mark repeats or joined lines; and in programming languages to enclose groups of statements.

Braces are also popular as oversized graphic elements. In this decorative usage, the information enclosed may be central {such as the names of a bride and groom} rather than incidental.

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesBrackets can be used to set off additional information appearing within a parenthetical phrase, as a way to avoid the “nesting” of parentheses.

Design tip: Parentheses, braces and brackets should be centered vertically next to the text they enclose. In most typefaces, these marks are designed to center vertically on the lowercase x-height. If you are enclosing all caps, or lining figures, the marks may need to be raised slightly.

Parentheses, Brackets, and BracesAdjust the position of parentheses, brackets or braces as necessary in order to center them vertically with their content.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Additional information regarding Monotype’s trademarks is available at Fontology is a trademark of Monotype Imaging and may be registered in certain jurisdictions.

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Parentheses, brackets, and braces

parentheses, brackets, and bracesStay the course

Paren­the­ses are for sep­a­rat­ing ci­ta­tions or other asides from the body text. Brack­ets show changes within quoted ma­te­r­ial. Braces—some­times known as curly brack­ets—are not typ­i­cally used ex­cept in tech­ni­cal and math­e­mat­i­cal writing.


In gen­eral, these marks should not adopt the for­mat­ting of the sur­rounded material.

[Exit Music (For a Film)] wrong
[Exit Music (For a Film)] right
[Exit Music (For a Film)] wrong
[Exit Music (For a Film)] right

But some­times, due to its slant, an italic char­ac­ter will col­lide with a ro­man paren­the­sis. In that case, it’s fine to ital­i­cize the paren­the­ses—read­ers will no­tice the col­li­sion more than the de­par­ture from convention.

(yells offstage at Biff) oops
(yells offstage at Biff) better

by the way

  • Why do braces get prime real es­tate on com­puter key­boards? Be­cause they’re part of the syn­tax of nearly every soft­ware-pro­gram­ming lan­guage. You may not use braces, but mod­ern life wouldn’t be pos­si­ble with­out them.
  • “Don’t fonts have kern­ing so that char­ac­ters won’t col­lide?” Yes, but kern­ing only works be­tween char­ac­ters of the same font size and style. In sit­u­a­tions where you have a ro­man char­ac­ter next to a bold or italic char­ac­ter, the only cure is vigilance.

Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces

Today Bonnie Trenga will help us talk about three punctuation marks: one you undoubtedly know how to use, another you possibly misuse, and yet another you’ve likely never used. If you’ve ever wondered when to favor parentheses over square brackets and when to stick in a pair of curly braces, listen on.


You’re probably well versed in how to use those sideways eyebrow thingies, better known as parentheses. First, remember that a pair of them is called “parentheses,” whereas a single one is a “parenthesis.” You may want to review episode 222 in which we compared parentheses to dashes and commas.

For now, let’s just say that parentheses mainly enclose information that is not vital to a sentence. No matter what you put within parentheses, your sentence must still make sense if you delete them and everything inside. Note that you are allowed to put both partial sentences and complete sentences within parentheses.

But no more than a whole paragraph, please, requests authority Brian Garner (1).

Before we move on, we need to address one issue: how to use terminal punctuation marks with parentheses. If your sentence starts with an opening parenthesis, then what’s inside your parentheses is a complete sentence.

You must therefore ensure that the terminal punctuation mark, such as a period, question mark, or exclamation point, goes inside the closing parenthesis: “(I knew he wouldn’t want to do that.

)” If what’s within the parentheses is only a partial sentence, put the terminal punctuation outside instead: “I moved to America when I was 10 (in 1980).”

For the most part, these two rules seem fairly easy to understand—complete sentence: terminal punctuation inside; partial sentence: terminal punctuation outside.

However, when you have a sentence that contains another complete sentence within parentheses, the punctuation could become confusing. Let’s say you want to add the complete sentence “I can’t believe it!” inside parentheses within another complete sentence.

In this case, the exclamation point would go inside the closing parenthesis and then a period would go outside: “I ate the whole box of donuts (I can’t believe it!).”

That works, but I often recommend making the sentence inside parentheses a complete sentence on its own that follows the first sentence. Make sure you have a reason for putting it in parentheses.

Next: Square Brackets



Tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text; opening and closing, or left and right symbols

This article is about the family of punctuation marks. For other uses, see Bracket (disambiguation).
“Parenthesis” and “parenthetical” redirect here. For other uses, see Parenthesis (disambiguation).


( )

{ }

[ ]

⟨ ⟩

Round brackets

Curly brackets

Square brackets

Angle brackets

This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation marks commonly used to isolate a segment of text or data from its surroundings.

Typically deployed in symmetric pairs, an individual bracket may be identified as a left or right bracket or, alternatively, an opening paired bracket or closing paired bracket,[1] respectively, depending on the directionality of the context.

Specific forms of the mark include rounded brackets (also called parentheses), square brackets, curly brackets (also called braces), and angle brackets (also called chevrons), as well as various less common pairs of symbols.

As well as signifying the overall class of punctuation, the word bracket is commonly used to refer to a specific form of bracket, which varies from region to region. In North America, an unqualified 'bracket' typically refers to the square bracket; in Britain, the round bracket.


Chevrons, ⟨ ⟩, were the earliest type of bracket to appear in written English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the term lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses, (), recalling the shape of the crescent moon.[2]

Names for various bracket symbols

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: “Bracket” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Some of the following names are regional or contextual.

  • ( ) – parentheses, brackets (UK, Ireland, Canada, West Indies, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia), parens, round brackets, first brackets, circle brackets or smooth brackets.
  • { } – braces[3] (UK and US), French brackets, curly brackets, definite brackets, swirly brackets, curly braces, birdie brackets, Scottish brackets, squirrelly brackets, gullwings, seagulls, squiggly brackets, twirly brackets, Tuborg brackets (DK), accolades (NL), pointy brackets, second brackets, fancy brackets, M Brace, moustache brackets.
  • [ ] – brackets (US), square brackets, closed brackets, hard brackets, third brackets, crotchets.[4]
  • ⟨ ⟩ – angle brackets, less-than/greater-than signs (when the ASCII approximation of is used), pointy brackets, triangular brackets, diamond brackets, tuples, chevrons, guillemets, broken brackets, brokets.[5]
  • ⸤ ⸥ 「 」 – corner brackets
  • ⟦ ⟧ – double square brackets, white square brackets, Scott brackets
  • 〔 〕 – tortoise shell brackets

The characters ‹ › and « », known as guillemets or angle quotes, are actually quotation marks used in several European languages.[6] Which one of each pair is the opening quote mark and which is the closing quote varies between languages.

Similarly, the corner-brackets 「 」 are quotation marks used in East Asian languages, though they have been repurposed for other contexts (see below).


When and Where to Use Parentheses, Braces, and Brackets in Math

You'll come across many symbols in mathematics and arithmetic. In fact, the language of math is written in symbols, with some text inserted as needed for clarification.

Three important—and related—symbols you'll see often in math are parentheses, brackets, and braces, which you'll encounter frequently in prealgebra and algebra.

That's why it's so important to understand the specific uses of these symbols in higher math.

Parentheses are used to group numbers or variables, or both. When you see a math problem containing parentheses, you need to use the order of operations to solve it. For example, take the problem: 9 – 5 ÷ (8 – 3) x 2 + 6

For this problem, you must calculate the operation within the parentheses first—even if it's an operation that would normally come after the other operations in the problem.

In this problem, the multiplication and division operations would normally come before subtraction (minus), however, since 8 – 3 falls within the parentheses, you'd work out this part of the problem first.

Once you've taken care of the calculation that falls within the parentheses, you'd remove them. In this case (8 – 3) becomes 5, so you would solve the problem as follows:

Note that per the order of operations, you'd work what's in the parentheses first, next, calculate numbers with exponents, and then multiply and/or divide, and finally, add or subtract. Multiplication and division, as well as addition and subtraction, hold an equal place in the order of operations, so you work these from left to right.

In the problem above, after taking care of the subtraction in the parentheses, you need to first divide 5 by 5, yielding 1; then multiply 1 by 2, yielding 2; then subtract 2 from 9, yielding 7; and then add 7 and 6, yielding a final answer of 13.

In the problem: 3(2 + 5), the parentheses tell you to multiply. However, you wouldn't multiply until you complete the operation inside the parentheses—2 + 5—so you would solve the problem as follows:

Brackets are used after the parentheses to group numbers and variables as well. Typically, you'd use the parentheses first, then brackets, followed by braces. Here is an example of a problem using brackets:

= 4 – 3[4 – 2(3)] ÷ 3 (Do the operation in the parentheses first; leave the parentheses.)

= 4 – 3[4 – 6] ÷ 3 (Do the operation in the brackets.)

= 4 – 3[-2] ÷ 3 (The bracket informs you to multiply the number within, which is -3 x -2.)

Braces are also used to group numbers and variables. This example problem uses parentheses, brackets, and braces. Parentheses inside other parentheses (or brackets and braces) are also referred to as “nested parentheses.” Remember, when you have parentheses inside brackets and braces, or nested parentheses, always work from the inside out:

Parentheses, brackets, and braces are sometimes referred to as “round,” “square,” and “curly” brackets, respectively. Braces are also used in sets, as in:

When working with nested parentheses, the order will always be parentheses, brackets, braces, as follows:

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