How do computers add? part 1


Inside a computer

Have you ever looked inside a computer case, or seen pictures of the inside of one? The small parts may look complicated, but the inside of a computer case isn't really all that mysterious. This lesson will help you master some of the basic terminology and understand a bit more about what goes on inside a computer.

Watch the video below to learn about what's inside a desktop computer.

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board. It's a thin plate that holds the CPU, memory, connectors for the hard drive and optical drives, expansion cards to control the video and audio, and connections to your computer's ports (such as USB ports). The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the computer.


How Do Computers Add? Part 1

The central processing unit (CPU), also called a processor, is located inside the computer case on the motherboard. It is sometimes called the brain of the computer, and its job is to carry out commands. Whenever you press a key, click the mouse, or start an application, you're sending instructions to the CPU.

The CPU is usually a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip located inside. The chip is usually about the size of a thumbnail. The CPU fits into the motherboard's CPU socket, which is covered by the heat sink, an object that absorbs heat from the CPU.

A processor's speed is measured in megahertz (MHz), or millions of instructions per second; and gigahertz (GHz), or billions of instructions per second. A faster processor can execute instructions more quickly. However, the actual speed of the computer depends on the speed of many different components—not just the processor.

RAM (random access memory)

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

RAM is your system's short-term memory. Whenever your computer performs calculations, it temporarily stores the data in the RAM until it is needed.

This short-term memory disappears when the computer is turned off. If you're working on a document, spreadsheet, or other type of file, you'll need to save it to avoid losing it. When you save a file, the data is written to the hard drive, which acts as long-term storage.

RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM you have, the more things your computer can do at the same time. If you don't have enough RAM, you may notice that your computer is sluggish when you have several programs open. Because of this, many people add extra RAM to their computers to improve performance.

Hard drive

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

The hard drive is where your software, documents, and other files are stored. The hard drive is long-term storage, which means the data is still saved even if you turn the computer off or unplug it.

When you run a program or open a file, the computer copies some of the data from the hard drive onto the RAM. When you save a file, the data is copied back to the hard drive. The faster the hard drive, the faster your computer can start up and load programs.

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

The power supply unit in a computer converts the power from the wall outlet to the type of power needed by the computer. It sends power through cables to the motherboard and other components.

If you decide to open the computer case and take a look, make sure to unplug the computer first. Before touching the inside of the computer, you should touch a grounded metal object—or a metal part of the computer casing—to discharge any static buildup. Static electricity can be transmitted through the computer circuits, which can seriously damage your machine.

Expansion cards

Most computers have expansion slots on the motherboard that allow you to add various types of expansion cards. These are sometimes called PCI (peripheral component interconnect) cards. You may never need to add any PCI cards because most motherboards have built-in video, sound, network, and other capabilities.

However, if you want to boost the performance of your computer or update the capabilities of an older computer, you can always add one or more cards. Below are some of the most common types of expansion cards.

Video card

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor. Most computers have a GPU (graphics processing unit)

Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC): Installation and Uses

Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC) is a Microsoft Management Console snap-in that you use to administer Active Directory (AD). You can manage objects (users, computers), Organizational Units (OU), and attributes of each.

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ADUC is one of the many tools that you can use to administer AD, but since it has been around since Windows 2000, it is one of the most popular. Read on to see how to run and use ADUC to manage AD.

How Do I Add Active Directory Users and Computers?

Some of you might have already looked for ADUC on your laptop to discover that it’s not there. It’s not part of the default installation, and how you get it installed depends on your version of Windows.

In current versions of Windows, ADUC is part of an administrative suite of tools called Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT).

Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT)

In an October 2018 update, Microsoft moved all of the Active Directory administration tools to a ‘feature on demand’ called RSAT. Attackers use whatever they can for privilege escalations and exfiltration.

They don’t need RSAT to do major damage to your network, but it sure makes it easier! If an attacker got hold of a computer with ADUC installed, they could just change passwords and access rights at will.

That would be very bad.

Anyway, if you want to access ADUC on your computer, you need to install RSAT. ADUC is not part of the default installation for any Windows version. Follow the instructions below to install:

Installing ADUC for Windows 10 Version 1809 and Above

    1. From the Start menu, select Settings > Apps.
    2. Click the hyperlink on the right side labeled Manage Optional Features and then click the button to Add feature.

    3. Select RSAT: Active Directory Domain Services and Lightweight Directory Tools.
    4. Click Install.

    5. When the installation completes, you will have a new menu item in the start menu called Windows Administrative Tools.

Installing ADUC for Windows 8 and Windows 10 Version 1803 and Below

    1. Download and install Remote Server Administrator Tools depending on your version of Windows. The link is for Windows 10, other versions are available in the Microsoft Download Center.
    2. Click the Start button and select Control Panel > Programs > Programs and Features > Turn Windows features on or off.

    3. Scroll down the list and expand Remote Server Administration Tools.
    4. Expand Role Administration Tools.
    5. Expand AD DS and AD LDS Tools.
    6. Check AD DS Tools, then select “OK.”
    7. When the install completes you will have a folder for Administrative Tools on the Start menu. ADUC should be in this list.

Troubleshooting RSAT Installation

There are two common installation issues to check if something goes sideways and you can’t get RSAT installed. First, check that you have enabled Windows Firewall. RSAT uses the Windows Update backend and thus needs Windows Firewall enabled.

Sometimes after the install, you might be missing tabs and such. Uninstall and reinstall. You might have had an older version and the update didn’t work 100%. You can also right click on ADUC in the Start menu and verify the shortcut is pointing to %SystemRoot%system32dsa.msc. If it doesn’t point there then you need to uninstall and reinstall for sure.

What is Active Directory Users and Computers Used For?

ADUC can cover most of your AD admin responsibilities. The most important missing task is probably managing GPOs, but you can do most everything else in ADUC.

With ADUC, you can manage the FSMO server roles, reset passwords, unlock users, change group memberships, and too many more to list. There are other tools in RSAT you can also use to manage AD.

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

  • Active Directory Administrative Center: Allows management for the AD Trash Can (accidental deletes), password policies, and displays the PowerShell history.
  • Active Directory Domains and Trusts: Lets you administer multiple domains to manage functional level, manage forest functional level, manage User Principle Names (UPN), and manage trusts between domains and forests.
  • Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell: Enables the PowerShell cmdlets to administer AD.
  • Active Directory Sites and Services: Allows you to view and manage Sites and Services. You can define the topology of AD and schedule replication.
  • ADSI Edit: ADSI Edit is a low-end tool to manage AD objects. AD experts don’t recommend that you use ADSI Edit, use ADUC instead.

Now let’s look at a few different use cases for ADUC.

How Do Computers Add? Part 1

ADUC for Delegating Control

Computer Hardware

  • Computers have two main parts: hardware and software
  • Like piano (hardware) and music (software)
  • In this section: hardware
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The computer is an amazingly useful general-purpose technology, to the point that now cameras, phones, thermostats, and more are all now little computers. This section will introduce major parts and themes of how computer hardware works. “Hardware” refers the physical parts of the computer, and “software” refers to the code that runs on the computer.

Chips and Transistors

  • Transistor – vital electronic building block -Transistors are “solid state” – no moving parts -One of the most important inventions in history
    -“Switch” that we can turn on/off with an electric signal
  • Silicon chip – fingernail sized piece of silicon
  • Microscopic transistors are etched onto silicon chips
  • Chips can contain billions of transistors
  • Chips are packaged in plastic, with little metal legs
  • e.g. CPU chips, memory chips, flash chips
  • Silicon (metalloid) vs. Silicone (soft substance on cooking utensils)

How Do Computers Add? Part 1How Do Computers Add? Part 1

Modern computers use tiny electronic components which can be etched onto the surface of a silicon chip. (See: wikipedia chip) Note that silicon (chips, solar panels) and silicone (soft rubbery material) are different!

The most common electronic component is the “transistor” which works as a sort of amplifying valve for a flow of electrons. The transistor is a “solid state” device, meaning it has no moving parts. It is a basic building block used to construct more complex electronic components.

In particular, a “bit” (below) can be built with an arrangement of 5 transistors. The transistor was invented in the early 1950's, replacing the vacuum tube. Since then, transistors have been made smaller and smaller, allowing more and more of them to be etched onto a silicon chip.

Moore's Law

  • Transistors get 2x smaller about every 2 years
    – sometimes listed as about 18 months
  • Can fit twice as many transistors per chip
  • Due to better chip etching technology
    -But a cutting edge chip factory costs more than 1 billion dollars
  • Observation vs. scientific “law”
  • 2 Effects:
  • a. chips have twice the capacity every 2 years
    speed does not double, capacity doubles which is still very useful
  • b. or keeping capacity constant, chips get smaller and cheaper every 2 years
  • (b) is why computers are now in cars, thermostats, greeting cards
  • Example: $50 MP3 player capacity every 2 years: 2GB, 4GB, 8GB, 16GB
  • Rule of thumb: 8x capacity every 6 years
  • 8x in 6 years may match your phone's capacity increase
  • Moore's law will probably not go on forever

Moore's law (Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder) states that the density of transistors on a chip doubles about every 2 years or so (sometimes listed as every 18 months). The increase is due to improved chip making technology. It is not a scientific law, just a broad prediction that seems to keep working. More broadly, it captures the idea that per dollar, computer technology (not just transistors) gets exponentially better as time goes along. This is quite clear if you look at the cost or capability of computers/cameras etc. you have owned. Moore's Law results in more capable computers (compare what an iPhone 7 can do vs. the original iPhone) as well as cheaper computers (less capable computers show up everywhere, like in thermostats and cars).

Computers in life: Control Systems

  • Control system: responds to external state

Add-Computer (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management)

[-ComputerName ]
[-LocalCredential ]
[-UnjoinDomainCredential ]
[-OUPath ]
[-Server ]
[-Options ]
[-NewName ]
[] Add-Computer
[-ComputerName ]
[-LocalCredential ]
[-Credential ]
[-NewName ]

The Add-Computer cmdlet adds the local computer or remote computers to a domain or workgroup, or moves them from one domain to another.
It also creates a domain account if the computer is added to the domain without an account.

You can use the parameters of this cmdlet to specify an organizational unit (OU) and domain controller or to perform an unsecure join.

To get the results of the command, use the Verbose and PassThru parameters.


Example 1: Add a local computer to a domain then restart the computer

Add-Computer -DomainName Domain01 -Restart

This command adds the local computer to the Domain01 domain and then restarts the computer to make the change effective.

Example 2: Add a local computer to a workgroup

Add-Computer -WorkgroupName WORKGROUP-A

This command adds the local computer to the Workgroup-A workgroup.

Example 3: Add a local computer to a domain

Add-Computer -DomainName Domain01 -Server Domain01DC01 -PassThru -Verbose

  • This command adds the local computer to the Domain01 domain by using the Domain01DC01 domain controller.
  • The command uses the PassThru and Verbose parameters to get detailed information about the results of the command.
  • Example 4: Add a local computer to a domain using the OUPath parameter
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Add-Computer -DomainName Domain02 -OUPath “OU=testOU,DC=domain,DC=Domain,DC=com”

This command adds the local computer to the Domain02 domain.
It uses the OUPath parameter to specify the organizational unit for the new accounts.

Example 5: Add a local computer to a domain using credentials

Add-Computer -ComputerName Server01 -LocalCredential Server01Admin01 -DomainName Domain02 -Credential Domain02Admin02 -Restart -Force

This command adds the Server01 computer to the Domain02 domain.
It uses the LocalCredential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to connect to the Server01 computer.

It uses the Credential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to join computers to the domain.

It uses the Restart parameter to restart the computer after the join operation completes and the Force parameter to suppress user confirmation messages.

Example 6: Move a group of computers to a new domain

Add-Computer -ComputerName Server01, Server02, localhost -DomainName Domain02 -LocalCredential Domain01User01 -UnjoinDomainCredential Domain01Admin01 -Credential Domain02Admin01 -Restart

This command moves the Server01 and Server02 computers, and the local computer, from Domain01 to Domain02.

It uses the LocalCredential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to connect to the three affected computers.

It uses the UnjoinDomainCredential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to unjoin the computers from the Domain01 domain and the Credential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to join the computers to the Domain02 domain.
It uses the Restart parameter to restart all three computers after the move is complete.

Example 7: Move a computer to a new domain and change the name of the computer

Add-Computer -ComputerName Server01 -DomainName Domain02 -NewName Server044 -Credential Domain02Admin01 -Restart

This command moves the Server01 computer to the Domain02 and changes the machine name to Server044.

The command uses the credential of the current user to connect to the Server01 computer and unjoin it from its current domain.
It uses the Credential parameter to specify a user account that has permission to join the computer to the Domain02 domain.

Example 8: Add computers listed in a file to a new domain

Add-Computer -ComputerName (Get-Content Servers.txt) -DomainName Domain02 -Credential Domain02Admin02 -Options Win9xUpgrade -Restart

This command adds the computers that are listed in the Servers.txt file to the Domain02 domain.
It uses the Options parameter to specify the Win9xUpgrade option.
The Restart parameter restarts all of the newly added computers after the join operation completes.

Example 9: Add a computer to a domain using predefined computer credentials

This first command should be run by an administrator from a computer that is already joined to domain Domain03:

New-ADComputer -Name “Server02” -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString -String 'TempJoinPA$$' -AsPlainText -Force)

# Then this command is run from `Server02` which is not yet domain-joined:

$joinCred = New-Object pscredential -ArgumentList ([pscustomobject]@{
UserName = $null
Password = (ConvertTo-SecureString -String 'TempJoinPA$$' -AsPlainText -Force)[0]
Add-Computer -Domain “Domain03” -Options UnsecuredJoin,PasswordPass -Credential $joinCred

This combination of commands creates a new computer account with a predefined name and temporary join password in a domain using an existing domain-joined computer.

Then separately, a computer with the predefined name joins the domain using only the computer name and the temporary join password.

The predefined password is only used to support the join operation and is replaced as part of normal computer account procedures after the computer completes the join.


Specifies a user account that has permission to connect to the computers that are specified by the ComputerName parameter.
The default is the current user.

Type a user name, such as “User01” or “Domain01User01”, or enter a PSCredential object, such as one generated by the Get-Credential cmdlet.
If you type a user name, you will be prompted for a password.

To specify a user account that has permission to add the computers to a new domain, use the Credential parameter.
To specify a user account that has permission to remove the computers from their current domain, use the UnjoinDomainCredential parameter.

This parameter is introduced in Windows PowerShell 3.0.

Type: PSCredential
Position: Named
Default value: Current user
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False



You can pipe computer names and new names to the Add-Computer Cmdlet.



When you use the PassThru parameter, Add-Computer returns a ComputerChangeInfo object.
Otherwise, this cmdlet does not generate any output.


  • In Windows PowerShell 2.0, the Server parameter of Add-Computer fails even when the server is present. In Windows PowerShell 3.0, the implementation of the Server parameter is changed so that it works reliably.

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