• Introduction
  • Truth Tables
  • Logic Gates
  • AND gate
  • OR gate
  • NOT gate
  • NAND gate
  • NOR gate
  • EOR gate
  • ENOR gate
  1. Example
  2. Problem
  3. Multiple Input Gates
  4. Tutorials with LabVIEW Simulations
  5. Gates and Functions Quiz


Boolean functions may be practically implemented by using electronic gates. The following points are important to understand.

  • Electronic gates require a power supply.
  • Gate INPUTS are driven by voltages having two nominal values, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively.
  • The OUTPUT of a gate provides two nominal values of voltage only, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively. In general, there is only one output to a logic gate except in some special cases.
  • There is always a time delay between an input being applied and the output responding.


Truth Tables

Truth tables are used to help show the function of a logic gate. If you are unsure about truth tables and need guidence on how go about drawning them for individual gates or logic circuits then use the truth table section link.

Truth Tables

Logic gates

Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. These gates are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. The basic operations are described below with the aid of truth tables.

AND gate

And/Or And/Or The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are high.  A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e. A.B.  Bear in mind that this dot is sometimes omitted i.e. AB   OR gate And/Or And/Or The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of its inputs are high.  A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation.  

NOT gate

And/Or The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output.  It is also known as an inverter.  If the input variable is A, the inverted output is known as NOT A.  This is also shown as A', or A with a bar over the top, as shown at the outputs. The diagrams below show two ways that the NAND logic gate can be configured to produce a NOT gate. It can also be done using NOR logic gates in the same way. And/Or  

NAND gate

And/Or And/Or This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate.  The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. The symbol is an AND gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.   NOR gate And/Or And/Or This is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate.  The outputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high. The symbol is an OR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.     EXOR gate The 'Exclusive-OR' gate is a circuit which will give a high output if either, but not both, of its two inputs are high.  An encircled plus sign () is used to show the EOR operation.

EXNOR gate

The 'Exclusive-NOR' gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. It will give a low output if either, but not both, of its two inputs are high. The symbol is an EXOR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.

  • The NAND and NOR gates are called universal functions since with either one the AND and OR functions and NOT can be generated.
  • Note:
  • A function in sum of products form can be implemented using NAND gates by replacing all AND and OR gates by NAND gates.

A function in product of sums form can be implemented using NOR gates by replacing all AND and OR gates by NOR gates.

Table 1: Logic gate symbols

Table 2 is a summary truth table of the input/output combinations for the NOT gate together with all possible input/output combinations for the other gate functions. Also note that a truth table with 'n' inputs has 2n rows. You can compare the outputs of different gates.

Table 2: Logic gates representation using the Truth table


A NAND gate can be used as a NOT gate using either of the following wiring configurations.                                         (You can check this out using a truth table.)


Use AND and OR to test a combination of conditions

Excel for Microsoft 365 Excel for the web Excel 2019 Excel 2016 Excel 2013 Excel 2010 More… Less

When you need to find data that meets more than one condition, such as units sold between April and January, or units sold by Nancy, you can use the AND and OR functions together. Here's an example:


This formula nests the AND function inside the OR function to search for units sold between April 1, 2011 and January 1, 2012, or any units sold by Nancy. You can see it returns True for units sold by Nancy, and also for units sold by Tim and Ed during the dates specified in the formula.

Here's the formula in a form you can copy and paste. If you want to play with it in a sample workbook, see the end of this article.

=OR(AND(C2>DATE(2011,4,30),C2=125000,AND(B4=”South”,C4>=100000))=TRUE,C4*0.12,”No bonus”)

Let's look a bit deeper. The IF function requires three pieces of data (arguments) to run properly. The first is a logical test, the second is the value you want to see if the test returns True, and the third is the value you want to see if the test returns False.

In this example, the OR function and everything nested in it provides the logical test. You can read it as: Look for values greater than or equal to 125,000, unless the value in column C is “South”, then look for a value greater than 100,000, and every time both conditions are true, multiply the value by 0.

12, the commission amount. Otherwise, display the words “No bonus.”

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If you want to work with the examples in this article, copy the following table into cell A1 in your own spreadsheet. Be sure to select the whole table, including the heading row.

Miller East 87925 =IF(OR(C2>=125000,AND(B2=”South”,C2>=100000))=TRUE,C2*0.12,”No bonus”)
Stahl North 100000 =IF(OR(C3>=125000,AND(B3=”South”,C3>=100000))=TRUE,C3*0.12,”No bonus”)
Foster West 145000 =IF(OR(C4>=125000,AND(B4=”South”,C4>=100000))=TRUE,C4*0.12,”No bonus”)
Wilcox South 200750 =IF(OR(C5>=125000,AND(B5=”South”,C5>=100000))=TRUE,C5*0.12,”No bonus”)
Barnhill South 178650 =IF(OR(C6>=125000,AND(B6=”South”,C6>=100000))=TRUE,C6*0.12,”No bonus”)
Thomas North 99555 =IF(OR(C7>=125000,AND(B7=”South”,C7>=100000))=TRUE,C7*0.12,”No bonus”)
Keever East 147000 =IF(OR(C8>=125000,AND(B8=”South”,C8>=100000))=TRUE,C8*0.12,”No bonus”)
Cassazza North 213450 =IF(OR(C9>=125000,AND(B9=”South”,C9>=100000))=TRUE,C9*0.12,”No bonus”)
Brownlee South 122680 =IF(OR(C10>=125000,AND(B10=”South”,C10>=100000))=TRUE,C10*0.12,”No bonus”)
Smithberg West 92500 =IF(OR(C11>=125000,AND(B11=”South”,C11>=100000))=TRUE,C11*0.12,”No bonus”)
Benson East 88350 =IF(OR(C12>=125000,AND(B12=”South”,C12>=100000))=TRUE,C12*0.12,”No bonus”)
Reading West 102500 =IF(OR(C13>=125000,AND(B13=”South”,C13>=100000))=TRUE,C13*0.12,”No bonus”)

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Comma Before And

Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list.

Comma Before And in Lists

A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about.

Commas can be tricky.

Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues.

Get Grammarly

Let’s say your dog has so many great qualities that you just have to tell the world. When you list your dog’s qualities, you have to use a comma after each quality you list except the one that comes immediately before and. That comma is optional.

The dog is young, well trained, and good natured.

The dog is young, well trained and good natured.

The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) Just be consistent. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it.

See also:  D-day: the tale of two brothers

By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. You should not use a comma before and if you’re only mentioning two qualities.

The dog is well trained, and good natured.

The dog is well trained and good natured.

  • This is true for proper names, ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else.

Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets.

Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets.

The dog barks, and plays.

Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses

The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction.

On Monday we’ll see the Eiffel Tower
, and on Tuesday we’ll visit the Louvre

The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. (By the way, you can tell they’re independent clauses because each one could stand on its own as a complete sentence.)

Here’s a tip: Remember, when you’re joining two independent clauses, you need both a comma and a conjunction. If you use a comma without a conjunction, you’ll end up with a comma splice.

  1. Let’s look at another example.

It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat.

Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. Therefore, we need a comma before and.

Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause.

Sam tossed the ball
, and watched the dog chase it

The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and.

Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it.


But wait! There’s an exception. (Isn’t there always?) When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. Here’s an example:

Arthur cooked and Melvin cleaned.

It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy.

Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Check out our general guide to comma usage.

Starting Sentences with And or But

One of our subscribers wrote to ask about starting sentences with and or but. She wondered whether it is considered grammatically correct to do so. The answer is yes.

  • The operative word here, though, is sentences.
  • Notice the difference between these two examples:
  • Two sentences:

Mary ran errands all day in the sweltering heat to ensure that she could leave town the next morning for her vacation. But that night she lay in bed remembering all the tasks she had not yet completed.

One sentence and one sentence fragment: 

Mary ran errands all day in the sweltering heat to ensure that she could leave town the next morning for her vacation. But that night lay in bed remembering all the tasks she had not yet completed.

It’s fine to use a coordinating conjunction to launch an independent clause (a group of words with a subject and a verb that could stand alone as a sentence), such as the one we have in the first example. But the sentence fragment in the second example  (a fragment because it is missing a subject), is not OK.

Coordinating Conjunctions

  1. And and but are two of the seven coordinating conjunctions:
  2. Although our subscriber asked specifically about starting sentences with and or but, any of the seven coordinating conjunctions may start a sentence.

  3. Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses that are balanced as logical equals:
  • Mary and I went to the meeting. [joins two subjects]
  • We were tired yet exhilarated by the end of our first day hiking up Mt. Everest. [joins two adjectives]
  • We swam all morning but fished in the afternoon. [joins two verbs]

Often these conjunctions are used to coordinate two independent clauses (groups of words that can stand alone as sentences).

Here are two examples, with the independent clauses in brackets:

  • [We started to go home], but

Do Not Use “and/or” in Legal Writing

I remain surprised at the number of intelligent, articulate, and well-read legal professionals who still use “and/or” in legal writing.

I am therefore creating this post to document a fairly complete list of authorities that support what I think is the better (if not obvious) view: never use “and/or” in legal writing (or any writing). And yes, I said “never.”

The Abomination that is “And/Or”

Although there is some support for “and/or,” the weight of authority is against its use, primarily for two reasons: (i) its use can result in uncertainty, (ii) it is not a real word.

I definitely fall into the camp of those who “wax indignant” over its use (these are Ken Adams’s words at p 109 of his Legal Usage in Drafting Corporate Agreements (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 2001).

And even though Adams seems to tolerate on the same page the convenience of “and/or” as merely “one of the more benign drafting evils” (in appropriate circumstances where it does not result in ambiguity), he “tends to avoid using and/or” in his own drafting (he also provides more commentary, and examples, in his book A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting, 2d ed (Chicago: ABA Section of Business Law, 2008) at paras 10.56 to 10.60).

Otherwise, the strongest support in favour of “and/or” that I have found comes from my copy of Fowler’s Modern English Usage, 3d ed (London: Oxford University Press, 2000), where it is suggested that “and/or” was first recorded in the mid-19th century in legal contexts (hardly a reason to support its continued use).

The phrase is described as “a formula denoting that the items can be taken either together or as alternatives.

” The text further notes that it is “still employed from time to time in legal writing” but then notes it “verges on the inelegant when used in general writing” and that the “more comfortable way of expressing the same idea is to use ‘X or Y or both,’ or, in many contexts, just ‘or.'” (p 53).

In my opinion, the better view is to simply avoid “and/or” all together, as suggested by a number of leading authorities:


Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), Rule 5.220 at 266:

  • and/or. Avoid this Janus-faced term. It can often be replaced by and or or with no loss in meaning. Where it seems needed . . . , try or . . . or both (take a sleeping pill or a warm drink or both). But think of other possibilities . . . .


William Strunk Jr & EB White, Elements of Style, 4th ed (New York: Longman, 1999) at 40:

  • and/or. A device, or shortcut, that damages a sentence and often leads to confusion or ambiguity.


Bryan A Garner (with Jeff Newman and Tiger Jackson), The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style (St Paul, MN: West Group, 2002), Rule 1.80 at 43:

  • The slash . . . has few uses in formal writing except with dates and fractions. It is best known as the star character in two grammatical abominations: and/or and he/she. It is especially unfit for legal writing because it is inherently ambiguous.
  • _________________________________________________________________
  • Bryan A Garner, The Elements of Legal Style, 2d ed (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) at 103:
  • and/or. Banish from your working vocabulary this “much condemned conjunctive-disjunctive crutch of sloppy thinkers” (citing Raine v Drasin, discussed below) . . . .
    The word or usually includes the sense of and:

    No food or drink allowed.

    That sentence does not suggest that food or drink by itself is disallowed while food and drink together are OK . . . .


Robert C Dick, Legal Drafting in Plain Language, 3d ed (Scarborough, ON: Carswell, 1995), Rule 10 at 107-11:

  • Never use “and/or.”
    This linguistic aberration is dealt with harshly by the courts . . . .
    The eye tends to trip and stumble over this symbol. It has been promulgated largely by those who either have not taken the trouble to decide, or cannot make up their minds, which of the two words they mean.

Even in the French language, the phrase “and/or” appears to be an abomination. Robert Dick, in the book above (at 111), cites the following French commentary against the use of “and/or” (from a jurist who later went on to become a Supreme Court of Canada judge):

Louis-Philippe Pigeon, Redaction et interpretation des lois (Quebec: University of Lavel, 1965) at 28:

  • “Et/ou” est tout simplement inadmissible . . . . L’utilisation de cette conjunction, qui n’en est pas une, est une chose qui répugne au génie de la langue, aussi bien en anglais qu’en français. Il faut prendre le temps de réfléchir et construire la phrase de façon à ne pas recourir à cet artifice.


For additional commentary, see the following articles (from oldest to most recent):

  • “An And/Or Symposium” (1932) 18 ABA Journal 456, 524, 574 (editorials).
  • “And/Or: Its Uses and Abuses” (1935-36) 42 West Va LQ 235
  • “And/or” (1939) 118 ALR 1367.
  • WT Bie, “Ambiguous Language in Insurance Policies” (1945) Ins LJ 653.
  • “And/or” (1945) 154 ALR 866.
  • Worth Allen, “Literary Fraction And/or” (1947) 24 Dicta 273.
  • Dwight G McCarty, “That Hybrid and/Or” (1961) 66 Com LJ 280.
  • Kermit L Dunahoo, “Avoiding Inadvertent Syntactic Ambiguity in Legal Draftsmanship” (1970-1971) 20 Drake L Rev 137.
  • Maurice B Kirk, “Legal Drafting: The Ambiguity of ‘And’ and ‘Or'” (1971) 2 Texas Tech Law Review 235.
  • “Some Cases on ‘And/or’” (1994) 31 Clarity 21.
  • Kenneth A Adams & Alan S. Kaye, “Revisiting the Ambiguity of and and or in Legal Drafting” (2006) 80 St John’s Law Review 1167.
  • Bryan A Garner, “Looking for Words to Kill? Start with These” (2006) 35 Student Lawyer 12.

I also highly recommend Bryan Garner’s Legal Writing in Plain English: A Text with Exercises (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001) for the exercises he has for rewriting sentences using “and/or” into sentences using proper English.

Despite my conniption fits over “and/or,” I acknowledge it is not always obvious how to best replace “and/or” with either “and” or “or” or some other word or re-phrasing (there: I did it, three instances of “or” in a row in a sentence).

But that is really the whole point of plain English in legal writing: figure out what you are trying to say and then use the most appropriate wording – don’t be lazy and simply use “and/or” when, without too much effort, you can derive better wording.

I highly recommend the article by Kermit Dunahoo (above) on the complexity of meanings of “and” and “or.” Ruth Sullivan in Statutory Interpretation, 2d ed (Toronto: Irwin Law, 2007) at 81-82 also has a good discussion on the meaning of “and” and “or.”

  1. _________________________________________________________________
  2. Case Law Critical of “And/Or”
  3. Criticism of “and/or” is not limited to commentary in secondary resources.
  4. Judges have been vociferous in noting its ambiguity.

Set out below is a selected list of cases, listed from oldest to most recent, where courts have been critical of “and/or” (note: many of the cases below were noted by either Garner or Dick in their books above; other cases I have come across on my own). To me it is significant that the cases come from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia – the criticism is widespread.

I am somewhat mortified that the Ontario Court of Appeal in the 1985 decision below suggests that there may be a role for “and/or” if properly used (however at the same time as being critical of the term).

What About and/or? – Grammar and Punctuation

Our recent article about the slash (/) garnered interesting responses, none more fascinating than the email informing us that in several English-speaking countries, “slash” is a raunchy slang term.

A couple of readers inquired about and/or, for obvious reasons. Grammar books generally disregard the slash, but most of them have a lot to say about and/or.

In the 1920s the renowned English scholar H.W. Fowler dismissed and/or as an “ugly device” that may be “common and convenient in some kinds of official, legal, and business documents, but should not be allowed outside them.

” Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style says and/or “damages a sentence and often leads to confusion or ambiguity.

” Wilson Follett’s Modern American Usage calls and/or an “ungraceful expression” that “has no right to intrude in ordinary prose.”

Several authorities recommend replacing and/or with or alone. As Follett points out, “generally or includes and. The weatherman’s snow or sleet tomorrow is no guarantee that we shall have only the one or the other.

” The following contemporary sentences could substitute or for and/or with no appreciable change in meaning: “Have you forgotten your user name and/or password?” “Candidates can submit new and/or additional documentation.

However in certain sentences, or by itself cannot replace and/or, as seen in this example from Theodore M. Bernstein’s The Careful Writer: “The law allows a $25 fine and/or thirty days in jail.” Fowler offers a straightforward alternative: “x or y or both of them.” Let’s try it with Bernstein’s sentence: “The law allows a $25 fine or thirty days in jail or both.” Problem solved.

Some and/or sentences cannot be justified under any circumstances. Consider this one, courtesy of a grammar website: “You can get to the campus for this morning’s meeting on a bike and/or in a car.” Did you catch it? You can take a bike or a car but you wouldn’t take both, so there is no excuse for the and/.

The slash these days is a shiny toy that everyone wants to play with. This may explain in part why and/or, with its ersatz air of authority, is more popular than ever.

The culture’s bewildering infatuation with slash formations turns off a lot of writers, who go to great lengths to avoid them.

Nonetheless, if in the course of your own writing you find one of those rare occasions that a slash is called for, by all means use it.

Pop Quiz

Can you banish and/or from these sentences? Suggested alternatives are below.

1. No, Virginia, having more people and/or businesses will not get you lower taxes.
2. Consider whether the audience will be able to view and/or understand the illustration easily.

3. Here is how to change your password and/or update your email address.

Pop Quiz Answers

1. No, Virginia, having more people or businesses will not get you lower taxes.
2. Consider whether the audience will be able to view and understand the illustration easily.
3. Here is how to change your password, update your email address, or both.

Posted on Tuesday, October 28, 2014, at 6:58 pm

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24 Comments on What About and/or?

SQL AND, OR and NOT Operators

The WHERE clause can be combined with AND, OR, and NOT operators.

The AND and OR operators are used to filter records based on more than one condition:

  • The AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND are TRUE.
  • The OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.

The NOT operator displays a record if the condition(s) is NOT TRUE.

AND Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name WHERE condition1 AND condition2 AND condition3 …;

OR Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name WHERE condition1 OR condition2 OR condition3 …;

NOT Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name WHERE NOT condition;

Demo Database

The table below shows the complete “Customers” table from the Northwind sample database:

1 Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany
2 Ana Trujillo Emparedados y helados Ana Trujillo Avda. de la Constitución 2222 México D.F. 05021 Mexico
3 Antonio Moreno Taquería Antonio Moreno Mataderos 2312 México D.F. 05023 Mexico
4 Around the Horn Thomas Hardy 120 Hanover Sq. London WA1 1DP UK
5 Berglunds snabbköp Christina Berglund Berguvsvägen 8 Luleå S-958 22 Sweden
6 Blauer See Delikatessen Hanna Moos Forsterstr. 57 Mannheim 68306 Germany
7 Blondel père et fils Frédérique Citeaux 24, place Kléber Strasbourg 67000 France
8 Bólido Comidas preparadas Martín Sommer C/ Araquil, 67 Madrid 28023 Spain
9 Bon app' Laurence Lebihans 12, rue des Bouchers Marseille 13008 France
10 Bottom-Dollar Marketse Elizabeth Lincoln 23 Tsawassen Blvd. Tsawassen T2F 8M4 Canada
11 B's Beverages Victoria Ashworth Fauntleroy Circus London EC2 5NT UK
12 Cactus Comidas para llevar Patricio Simpson Cerrito 333 Buenos Aires 1010 Argentina
13 Centro comercial Moctezuma Francisco Chang Sierras de Granada 9993 México D.F. 05022 Mexico
14 Chop-suey Chinese Yang Wang Hauptstr. 29 Bern 3012 Switzerland
15 Comércio Mineiro Pedro Afonso Av. dos Lusíadas, 23 São Paulo 05432-043 Brazil
16 Consolidated Holdings Elizabeth Brown Berkeley Gardens 12 Brewery London WX1 6LT UK
17 Drachenblut Delikatessend Sven Ottlieb Walserweg 21 Aachen 52066 Germany
18 Du monde entier Janine Labrune 67, rue des Cinquante Otages Nantes 44000 France
19 Eastern Connection Ann Devon 35 King George London WX3 6FW UK
20 Ernst Handel Roland Mendel Kirchgasse 6 Graz 8010 Austria
21 Familia Arquibaldo Aria Cruz Rua Orós, 92 São Paulo 05442-030 Brazil
22 FISSA Fabrica Inter. Salchichas S.A. Diego Roel C/ Moralzarzal, 86 Madrid 28034 Spain
23 Folies gourmandes Martine Rancé 184, chaussée de Tournai Lille 59000 France
24 Folk och fä HB Maria Larsson Åkergatan 24 Bräcke S-844 67 Sweden
25 Frankenversand Peter Franken Berliner Platz 43 München 80805 Germany
26 France restauration Carine Schmitt 54, rue Royale Nantes 44000 France
27 Franchi S.p.A. Paolo Accorti Via Monte Bianco 34 Torino 10100 Italy
28 Furia Bacalhau e Frutos do Mar Lino Rodriguez Jardim das rosas n. 32 Lisboa 1675 Portugal
29 Galería del gastrónomo Eduardo Saavedra Rambla de Cataluña, 23 Barcelona 08022 Spain
30 Godos Cocina Típica José Pedro Freyre C/ Romero, 33 Sevilla 41101 Spain
31 Gourmet Lanchonetes André Fonseca Av. Brasil, 442 Campinas 04876-786 Brazil
32 Great Lakes Food Market Howard Snyder 2732 Baker Blvd. Eugene 97403 USA
33 GROSELLA-Restaurante Manuel Pereira 5ª Ave. Los Palos Grandes Caracas 1081 Venezuela
34 Hanari Carnes Mario Pontes Rua do Paço, 67 Rio de Janeiro 05454-876 Brazil
35 HILARIÓN-Abastos Carlos Hernández Carrera 22 con Ave. Carlos Soublette #8-35 San Cristóbal 5022 Venezuela
36 Hungry Coyote Import Store Yoshi Latimer City Center Plaza 516 Main St. Elgin 97827 USA
37 Hungry Owl All-Night Grocers Patricia McKenna 8 Johnstown Road Cork Ireland
38 Island Trading Helen Bennett Garden House Crowther Way Cowes PO31 7PJ UK
39 Königlich Essen Philip Cramer Maubelstr. 90 Brandenburg 14776 Germany
40 La corne d'abondance Daniel Tonini 67, avenue de l'Europe Versailles 78000 France
41 La maison d'Asie Annette Roulet 1 rue Alsace-Lorraine Toulouse 31000 France
42 Laughing Bacchus Wine Cellars Yoshi Tannamuri 1900 Oak St. Vancouver V3F 2K1 Canada
43 Lazy K Kountry Store John Steel 12 Orchestra Terrace Walla Walla 99362 USA
44 Lehmanns Marktstand Renate Messner Magazinweg 7 Frankfurt a.M. 60528 Germany
45 Let's Stop N Shop Jaime Yorres 87 Polk St. Suite 5 San Francisco 94117 USA
46 LILA-Supermercado Carlos González Carrera 52 con Ave. Bolívar #65-98 Llano Largo Barquisimeto 3508 Venezuela
47 LINO-Delicateses Felipe Izquierdo Ave. 5 de Mayo Porlamar I. de Margarita 4980 Venezuela
48 Lonesome Pine Restaurant Fran Wilson 89 Chiaroscuro Rd. Portland 97219 USA
49 Magazzini Alimentari Riuniti Giovanni Rovelli Via Ludovico il Moro 22 Bergamo 24100 Italy
50 Maison Dewey Catherine Dewey Rue Joseph-Bens 532 Bruxelles B-1180 Belgium
51 Mère Paillarde Jean Fresnière 43 rue St. Laurent Montréal H1J 1C3 Canada
52 Morgenstern Gesundkost Alexander Feuer Heerstr. 22 Leipzig 04179 Germany
53 North/South Simon Crowther South House 300 Queensbridge London SW7 1RZ UK
54 Océano Atlántico Ltda. Yvonne Moncada Ing. Gustavo Moncada 8585 Piso 20-A Buenos Aires 1010 Argentina
55 Old World Delicatessen Rene Phillips 2743 Bering St. Anchorage 99508 USA
56 Ottilies Käseladen Henriette Pfalzheim Mehrheimerstr. 369 Köln 50739 Germany
57 Paris spécialités Marie Bertrand 265, boulevard Charonne Paris 75012 France
58 Pericles Comidas clásicas Guillermo Fernández Calle Dr. Jorge Cash 321 México D.F. 05033 Mexico
59 Piccolo und mehr Georg Pipps Geislweg 14 Salzburg 5020 Austria
60 Princesa Isabel Vinhoss Isabel de Castro Estrada da saúde n. 58 Lisboa 1756 Portugal
61 Que Delícia Bernardo Batista Rua da Panificadora, 12 Rio de Janeiro 02389-673 Brazil
62 Queen Cozinha Lúcia Carvalho Alameda dos Canàrios, 891 São Paulo 05487-020 Brazil
63 QUICK-Stop Horst Kloss Taucherstraße 10 Cunewalde 01307 Germany
64 Rancho grande Sergio Gutiérrez Av. del Libertador 900 Buenos Aires 1010 Argentina
65 Rattlesnake Canyon Grocery Paula Wilson 2817 Milton Dr. Albuquerque 87110 USA
66 Reggiani Caseifici Maurizio Moroni Strada Provinciale 124 Reggio Emilia 42100 Italy
67 Ricardo Adocicados Janete Limeira Av. Copacabana, 267 Rio de Janeiro 02389-890 Brazil
68 Richter Supermarkt Michael Holz Grenzacherweg 237 Genève 1203 Switzerland
69 Romero y tomillo Alejandra Camino Gran Vía, 1 Madrid 28001 Spain
70 Santé Gourmet Jonas Bergulfsen Erling Skakkes gate 78 Stavern 4110 Norway
71 Save-a-lot Markets Jose Pavarotti 187 Suffolk Ln. Boise 83720 USA
72 Seven Seas Imports Hari Kumar 90 Wadhurst Rd. London OX15 4NB UK
73 Simons bistro Jytte Petersen Vinbæltet 34 København 1734 Denmark
74 Spécialités du monde Dominique Perrier 25, rue Lauriston Paris 75016 France
75 Split Rail Beer & Ale Art Braunschweiger P.O. Box 555 Lander 82520 USA
76 Suprêmes délices Pascale Cartrain Boulevard Tirou, 255 Charleroi B-6000 Belgium
77 The Big Cheese Liz Nixon 89 Jefferson Way Suite 2 Portland 97201 USA
78 The Cracker Box Liu Wong 55 Grizzly Peak Rd. Butte 59801 USA
79 Toms Spezialitäten Karin Josephs Luisenstr. 48 Münster 44087 Germany
80 Tortuga Restaurante Miguel Angel Paolino Avda. Azteca 123 México D.F. 05033 Mexico
81 Tradição Hipermercados Anabela Domingues Av. Inês de Castro, 414 São Paulo 05634-030 Brazil
82 Trail's Head Gourmet Provisioners Helvetius Nagy 722 DaVinci Blvd. Kirkland 98034 USA
83 Vaffeljernet Palle Ibsen Smagsløget 45 Århus 8200 Denmark
84 Victuailles en stock Mary Saveley 2, rue du Commerce Lyon 69004 France
85 Vins et alcools Chevalier Paul Henriot 59 rue de l'Abbaye Reims 51100 France
86 Die Wandernde Kuh Rita Müller Adenauerallee 900 Stuttgart 70563 Germany
87 Wartian Herkku Pirkko Koskitalo Torikatu 38 Oulu 90110 Finland
88 Wellington Importadora Paula Parente Rua do Mercado, 12 Resende 08737-363 Brazil
89 White Clover Markets Karl Jablonski 305 – 14th Ave. S. Suite 3B Seattle 98128 USA
90 Wilman Kala Matti Karttunen Keskuskatu 45 Helsinki 21240 Finland
91 Wolski Zbyszek ul. Filtrowa 68 Walla 01-012 Poland

AND Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city is “Berlin”:

OR Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where city is “Berlin” OR “München”:

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” OR “Spain”:

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE Country='Germany' OR Country='Spain';

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NOT Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany”:

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE NOT Country='Germany';

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Combining AND, OR and NOT

You can also combine the AND, OR and NOT operators.

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city must be “Berlin” OR “München” (use parenthesis to form complex expressions):

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE Country='Germany' AND (City='Berlin' OR City='München');

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The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany” and NOT “USA”:

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE NOT Country='Germany' AND NOT Country='USA';

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